Conduct or participation in research activities. The City is testing new ways to use heat generated by 
CHP by pre-heating sludge lines to the digester.  

Conduct or participation in research activities. The City hosts HyTek Bio, which is testing the conversion 
of stack CO2 emissions from the cogeneration facility at a wastewater treatment facility to marketable 
algae-based products.  

Conduct or participation in research activities. The City will be demonstrating battery storage systems 
combined with CHP and electric vehicle chargers for improved reliability and revenue generation.  

Performance Measures & Results 

Since 2006, the City has reduced its non-renewable energy use by 12% and reduced its carbon footprint 
by 25%, measured by grid electricity.  

Increase in use of solar and renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on the power grid  

In 2014, the City had only a 1 MW solar plant at a wastewater treatment facility. In 2016, the City had 11 
MW of solar – 1 MW behind the meter at the WWTP and 10 MW purchased through a virtual aggregate 
net metering agreement with Constellation. This 10 MW net metering deal will save $11 million over 15 
years.  The 10 MW solar project will reduce the energy use from the grid by an additional 14 million kWh 
per year for a total of 54 million kWh reduction or 14%. The City is developing a solicitation for an 
additional up to 5 MW on landfills and is evaluating opportunities that could reach an additional 10 to 
30 MW.  

Increase in use of cogeneration to reduce reliance on the power grid.  

The City currently operates three 1 MW generators using digester methane gas at a wastewater 
treatment facility. The City is in the process of developing an additional 10 MW of cogeneration, largely 
reliant on natural gas.  

Purchase of renewable energy credits In 2015, the City purchased renewable energy credits to cover 
13% of its electricity use and has a goal of 18% by 2020.  

Anticipated investment in energy efficiency The City is investing $5 million in combined heat and power 
for the water and wastewater operations, with savings of $700,000 projects and anticipated savings per 




Green infrastructure deployment to enhance infiltration, evapotranspiration, treatment, or 
capture and reuse of stormwater  


Watershed permitting strategy for multiple facilities (e.g., active nutrient water quality trading 
under a watershed-based permit)  


Ecosystem enhancements for improved hydraulics or water quality, including:  



Riparian reforestation to enhance pollution mitigation functions 



Stream channel restoration for increased hydrologic stability   



Critical land acquisitions (e.g., conservation easements, buffer-zone purchases)